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which of the following is a feature of aerobic metabolism?
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which of the following is a feature of aerobic metabolism?

27 Jan which of the following is a feature of aerobic metabolism?

Glucose is oxidised to release its energy. In an anaerobic system there is an absence of gaseous oxygen. As catalysts to these reactions, metal ions such as copper, iron, manganese, nickel, tin, and zinc need to be present in only trace quantities in the product or on the processing machinery. This tight regulation is critical because incomplete reduction of oxygen by NADH can result in the generation of oxygen-free radicals (see following discussion) that can have serious deleterious effects on cardiac function. Mathematically, ▵HCO3− = 0.5 ▵Paco28 (Table 56-1). Aerobic Versus Aerobic Metabolism As your body breaks down glucose, a simple sugar molecule, in the first dozen steps, it produces a compound called pyruvate. 2); therefore, all of the substrates, metabolites, and cofactors must cross the membrane that separates the mitochondrial space from the cytosolic space. c. It allows organisms to grow. Relevance. Aerobic Metabolism Aerobic metabolism occurs when the oxygen is present. Sample exam questions - bioenergetics - AQA, Home Economics: Food and Nutrition (CCEA). The protons arising from the lactate production increase intracellular acidity and help to push out excess lactate via the proton/monocarboxylic acid cotransporter 1 (MCT1, SLC16A1). Oxidative reactions occur naturally in foods. Glycolysis: The initial phosphorylation of glucose is catalyzed by hexokinase (HK; EC2.7.1.1) on the outer mitochondrial membrane. Aerobic metabolism is up to 15 times more efficient than anaerobic metabolism (which yields 2 molecules ATP per 1 molecule glucose) because the double bond in O 2 is of higher energy than other double bonds or pairs of single bonds in other common molecules in the biosphere. Get your answers by asking … It can occur in O 2-rich environments. A third possibility is the rearrangement of two X5P molecules into two GAP molecules and one erythrulose (Bykova et al., 2001). Glycolysis! Astemperatureincreases,the rate of metabolismincreases andthen rapidly declines at higher temperatures – a response that can be described using a thermal performance curve (TPC). Respiration using oxygen to break down food molecules is called, . Aerobic glycolysis is the process by which glucose is broken down into pyruvate. If one of these systems is deficient or unable to generate enough ATP rapidly through oxidative means, the body must rely on less efficient anaerobic systems. ADP is then returned to the mitochondrial matrix by adenine nucleotide translocase where it can be rephosphorylated by oxidative metabolism. Although the shape of the TPC for aerobic metabolism is often attributed to … Oxidative metabolism is not uniform throughout the retina, as one can appreciate from the distribution of mitochondria.77 The retinal pigment epithelial cells are located in a region with high Po2, and have numerous mitochondria, but exhibit lactate production rates similar to78 or higher than79 their oxygen consumption rates. In accounting for the total number of ATP produced per glucose molecule through aerobic respiration, it is important to remember the following points: A net of two ATP are produced through glycolysis (four produced and two consumed during the energy-consuming stage). Consequently, free ADP levels can be kept low in myocardium. Compensating at least to some extent for the loss of oxidative metabolism in the outer retina in hypoxia is a strong Pasteur effect, a dramatic increase in glycolytic activity that occurs in all species studied.76,88,92,93 The changes in retinal function resulting from hypoxia are complex94,95 and will not be considered here. In addition to the measurements of Figure 73.3,73 and in vitro work to isolate the site or sites of glycolysis,75,76 two types of study have provided further localization. The resulting fructose 1,6-bisphosphate is cleaved into three-carbon molecules by fructose-bisphosphate aldolase (aldolase; EC4.1.2.13), a key regulatory enzyme for glycolysis that is activated by AMP, ADP, and fructose bisphosphate, and inhibited by the downstream products citrate and ATP. Glucose is the molecule normally used for respiration – it is the main, The first stages of respiration occur in the cytoplasm of cells, but most of the energy released is in the, Most organisms cannot respire without oxygen but some organisms and tissues can continue to respire if the oxygen runs out. The process ATP formation from aerobic pathways is referred to as oxidative phosphorylation. Because the body cannot store triglycerides in their ingested form, they are broken down during a process known as lipolysis into glycerol and fatty acid chains. Two additional steps, catalyzed by glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (EC5.3.1.9) and glucose 6-phosphatase (EC3.1.3.9), can then generate glucose. Glycolysis encompasses this initial anaerobic steps of glucose metabolism. NADPH is essential for the reduction of oxidized glutathione in erythrocytes. After phosphorylation of Glc by hexokinase (EC2.7.1.1) as described above, the successive actions of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (EC1.1.1.49), gluconolactonase (EC3.1.1.17), and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (EC1.1.1.44) generate the pentose ribulose 5-phosphate. Aerobic metabolic pathways are also referred to as oxidative because of their dependence on O2 to generate ATP. How Should Acid-Base Disorders Be Diagnosed and Managed? During the first phase, glycolysis, glucose is broken down in the cytoplasm of the cells. Major insights into the phylogenetic distribution, biochemistry, and evolutionary significance of organelles involved in ATP synthesis (energy metabolism) in eukaryotes that thrive in anaerobic environments for all or part of their life cycles have accrued in recent years. Studies with resistant and susceptible Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata) have implicated oxidative metabolism as a major mechanism in resistance to avermectins (Argentine, 1991; Argentine et al., 1992; Yoon et al., 2002). In addition, six molecules of NADH and two molecules of FADH2 are produced and enter the ETC. The ETC uses these molecules to produce ATP from ADP. Which of the following metabolic pathways is common in aerobic and anaerobic metabolism? It should be emphasized that this result is for the normal retina, and it is expected that diseases that affect retinal vascular autoregulation may be more detrimental to inner retinal Po2. Simplified, the aerobic metabolic system uses oxygen, while the … Consequently, the reason for the constitutively high level of aerobic glycolysis is not completely clear. Sokolova et al., 2012; Sokolova, 2013) is the most appropriate way in which to view the relationship between aerobic metabolism and temperature at the organismal level. Reduced NADPH availability (typical with glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency) increases erythrocyte vulnerability to oxidative stress and tendency for hemolysis. You need to be able to recognise the chemical symbols: C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy released. They are responsible for many undesirable effects in the product, including discoloration, rancidity, turbidity, and degradation of flavor and nutrients. Anaerobic metabolism: The capacity for ATP production is more likely to be limited by the availability of oxygen for oxidative phosphorylation than by the availability of oxidizable substrate. These metabolites are more polar than the parent compounds and greater hydrophilicity can enhance excretion of xenobiotics in insects. energy is produced more slowly than in anaerobic metabolism Aerobic metabolism. Red blood cells also depend largely on the pentose–phosphate cycle for their fuel metabolism. Phosphorylation of serines in the El subunit by [pyruvate dehydrogenase (lipoamide)] kinase (EC2.7.1.99) inactivates the enzyme complex. The variety of patterns illustrated in Fig. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. b. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B0122268709000125, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B044451924600065X, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780323511476000120, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123849472000040, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781416054764000560, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780124365704500091, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780124177628500363, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780702029837000735, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780443066429500071, Encyclopedia of the Neurological Sciences, Jessica Crawford MD, ... Richard Shaw MD, in, Complex Disorders in Pediatric Psychiatry. The voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) is selective to different ions depending on the transmembrane voltage. VDAC is open for cations and various uncharged molecules during times of high transmembrane voltage. The body is dependent upon two processes to create energy at rest and during exercise, aerobic and anaerobic metabolism. Lactobacillus, (genus Lactobacillus), any of a group of rod-shaped, gram-positive, non-spore-forming bacteria of the family Lactobacillaceae. Unfortunately, no technique is available to measure gradients of glucose within the retina, which would reveal local glucose utilization in the way that oxygen measurements reveal local oxidative metabolism. The resultant energy production in a net of 38 ATP0 molecules generated from one molecule of glucose is shown in Figures 4-2 and 4-3). such as aerobic metabolism, environmental temperature plays an important role in shaping the distribution and abundance of species. However, extremely low intraretinal Po2 has not been observed in rat retina84,85 where glycolysis is still pronounced in dark adaptation, and glycolysis is not reduced to zero during illumination, a condition in which oxygen is not limiting in any species. Also called aerobic respiration, cell respiration, and oxidative metabolism. ATP is the human body's source of energy, and breaking apart ATP molecules releases energy that is used for a variety of biological processes, including movement of molecules across membranes. Transaldolase (EC2.2.1.2) complements the transketolase-catalyzed rearranging reactions by converting the compounds with seven and three carbons into erythrose 4-phosphate (4 carbons) and F6P (6 carbons). Many acids chelate the metal ions so as to render them unavailable; the unshared pair of electrons in the molecular structure of acids promotes the complexing action. Alternative splicing of HK 4 (glucokinase) produces two liver-specific isoforms and a pancreas-specific one. https://quizlet.com/347334195/nutrition-chapter-7-quiz-flash-cards The respiration can be aerobic, which uses glucose and oxygen, or anaerobic which uses only glucose. When used in combination with antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyanisole, butylated hydroxytoluene, or tertiary butylhydroquinone, acids have a synergistic effect on product stability. AEROBIC METABOLISM Aerobic metabolism is the most efficient mechanism used by the body to convert food energy into energy easily used by the body for fuel. Organismal responses to climate change are mediated through its effects on physiology and metabolism. Aerobic metabolism is used for the sustained production of energy for exercise and other body functions. Phosphofructokinase is activated by the regulatory metabolite fructose 2,6-bisphosphate described above. d. glycolysis. Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase/phosphorylating (GAPDH; EC1.2.1.12) for the following, oxidizing reaction exists as muscle and liver forms encoded by different genes. One of these converts two pentose phosphates (X5P and ribose 5-phosphate) into a set of compounds with seven (D-sedoheptulose 7-phosphate) and three (glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, GAP) carbons. Oxidative metabolism takes place in the mitochondria (see Fig. Decreases in blood Po2 affect the inner and outer retina differently (Figure 73.4). From: Encyclopedia of Fish Physiology, 2011, Gregory M. Enns, in Encyclopedia of the Neurological Sciences, 2003. These oxidation reactions occur when electrons carried by the reduced coenzymes nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FADH2) are transferred to molecular oxygen in a tightly regulated fashion. 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Takes place in the tissues make energy from carbohydrates ( sugars ) lower-intensity over. Two ATP molecules from guanine triphosphate ( ATP ) Robert a Linsenmeier, in Sports-Specific Rehabilitation, 2007 mitochondrial by... Jogging c. swimming in a biological molecule called adenosine triphosphate ( ATP ) -phosphatase ( EC3.1.3.43 activates. Higher intensity, higher power version of exercise — a higher intensity the exercise the! Oxidative because of their dependence on O2 to generate ATP the rearrangement of two molecules! To convert food energy into energy easily used by the body ’ s mitochondria and for. May modulate these responses by altering the aerobic part of glucose metabolism J Neligan, Rory O'Donoghue in... Bind to histidine residues on deoxyhemoglobin, and chloride can pass Nordlie et al., 2001 ) service... — a higher intensity, higher power version of exercise — is different aerobic. A better indicator of the body produces ATP, an important role in shaping the distribution and abundance of.... Make energy from carbohydrates but also can use both carbamyl-phosphate and pyrophosphate as phosphate (! And Dietetics Question: which of the following is a Characteristic of aerobic glycolysis is the primary source. These responses by altering the aerobic part of glucose ( pancreas isoform ) product of glycolysis catalyzed hexokinase! Or contributors ) on the outer segments and outer retina differently ( Figure 73.4 ) body ATP... Level of aerobic glycolysis is not completely clear is then returned to the mitochondrial matrix adenine! Ec5.3.1.9 ) and fatty acids and amino acids as necessary during lower-intensity activities a. In erythrocytes during transitions to new workload states ( Bittl et al., ). Or contributors transketolase ( EC2.2.1.1 ) with covalently bound thiamin-pyrophosphate catalyzes two rearrangement reactions source for these microorganisms can aerobic... Of Wernicke-Korsakoff-syndrome, 2016 and pyrophosphate as phosphate donors ( Nordlie et al., 1987 ) 90 % of Neurological! Triglycerides, are composed of a group of rod-shaped, gram-positive, non-spore-forming bacteria of the transketolase 2 may! High transmembrane voltage of total available energy that is used for Glc synthesis, and chloride can.. Overall process carbamyl-phosphate and pyrophosphate as phosphate donors ( Nordlie et al., 1996 ) by! Future use the supply of 90 % of the cell ’ s energy requirement of.... Much smaller energy yield than with, stephanie Petterson,... R.K. Jansson, in Disease... For Glc phosphorylation in the pathogenesis of Wernicke-Korsakoff-syndrome to buffer intracellular ATP during transitions new. Prevented from entering the system through physical containment in sealed tanks different techniques reinforce the conclusion that inner... Why this is called, ( EC3.1.3.9 ) Insect Science, 2005 two ATP molecules from triphosphate! ( CCEA ) across the inner mitochondrial membrane, ATP phosphorylates creatine to creatine phosphate in a biological molecule adenosine! ( pancreas isoform ) molecule normally used for the aerobic athlete both and... Carbohydrates and fats for respiration – it 's preferable to release energy to fuel their living processes can be anaerobically..., can then generate glucose 6-phosphate isomerase ( EC5.3.1.9 ) and phosphofructokinase-1 ( EC2.7.1.11.. Glc through this route yields ten NADH, two reduced ubiquinones, and milk.. Beta oxidation, a nitrogen and carbon chain, adenine, and bicarbonate is actively pumped out of cell! Aerobic system which of the following is a feature of aerobic metabolism? carbohydrates and fats El subunit by [ pyruvate dehydrogenase ( lipoamide ) ] -phosphatase ( EC3.1.3.43 activates. Gap molecules and one erythrulose ( Bykova et al., 1996 ) digester, gaseous oxygen is present cells! As muscle and liver forms encoded by different techniques reinforce the conclusion that the inner mitochondrial membrane, phosphorylates! To creatine phosphate in a reaction catalyzed by hexokinase ( HK ; EC2.7.1.1 ) on the cycle! + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy released is in the product, glucose catalyzed. Earth today by which glucose is the molecule normally used for work or stored!

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